King Details

Author:  Joshua Meadowcroft

(Note:  It might seem odd when viewing the timeline at first to see the Southern Kingdom on the top and the Northern Kingdom on the bottom.  It would kind of make sense to swap them.   The Southern Kingdom was kept on the top for a couple reasons:  #1 – Kings starts off dealing with Judah first and #2 – Rehoboam continues the lineage of David and Solomon. )

Rehoboam:  Started reign 2969   (1 Kings 11:43; 14:21, 25)

–       reigned 17 years / Abijam becomes king: 2969 + 17 = 2986

–       In 5th year of reign Shishak of Egypt invaded Jerusalem and purged the Temple. (2969 + 4 = 2973)

 

Jeroboam:  Started at same time as Rehoboam at the division on the Tribes: 2969 (1 Kings 12)

 

Abijam:  Began reign in 18th year of Jeroboam (1 Kings 15:2,8)

–       Jeroboam: 2969 + 17 = 2986

–       Abijam reigned 3 years / Asa becomes king:  2986 + 3 = 2989

 

Asa:  Began reign in 20th year of Jeroboam (1 Kings 15:9-10, 24)

–       Jeroboam: 2969 + 19 = 2988/2989

–       See footnote *9b

–       Asa reigned 41 years / Jehoshephat becomes king:  2989 + 41 =  3030

 

Jehoshephat:  Began reign in 4th year of Ahab (1 Kings 15:24; 22:41-42, 50)

–       Ahab: 3026 + 3 = 3029/3030

–       See footnote *9b

–       Started reign when 35 years old:  3030 – 35 = 2995

–       Reigned 25 years / Jehoram becomes king: 3030 + 25 = 3055

 

Jehoram:  Began reign when Jehoshephat died:  3055 (1 Kings 22:50; 2 Kings 8:16-17, 24)

–       Began reign in 5th year of Joram

–       Joram:  3048 + 4 = 3052

–       Started reign when 32 years old: 3052 – 32 = 3020

–       Reigned 8 years / Ahaziah 2 becomes king:  3055 + 8 = 3063

 

Ahaziah 2: Began reign in 12th year of Joram (2 Kings 8:25-26; 2 Kings 9:29; 2 Kings 11:1-3)

–       Joram: 3048 + 11 = 3059

–       Began reign in 11th year of Joram

–       Joram: 3048 + 10 = 3058

–       It’s unknown how to account for 3059 and 3058.  Because this is the earlier year for Ahaziah 2 it does not affect the progression of time.   The choice is 3059. 

–       See bottom line of Jehoram for explanation of 3063.

–       Started reign when 22 years old:  3059 – 22 = 3037

–       Reigned 1 year / Athaliah (women) reigns over the land:  3063 + 1 = 3064

 

Athaliah:  Began reigning over Judah after Ahaziah, her son, was killed by Jehu.  3064 (2 Kings 11:1-3)

–       Reigned 6 years / Jehoash becomes king:  3064 + 6 = 3070

–       Note: (See Jehu):  Other references suggest Jehu began to reign in 3065.  More information suggests Jehu starting in 3064.

 

Jehoash:  Began reign in 7th year of Jehu (2 Kings 11:21; 12:1; 12:6-14; 12:20-21)

–       Jehu:  3064 + 6 = 3070

–       Started reign at 7 years old:  3070 – 7 = 3063

–       In 23rd year of reign repairs the House of the Lord:  3070 + 22 = 3092

–       Reigned 40 years / Amaziah becomes king: 3070 + 40 = 3110

 

Amaziah:  Began reign in 2nd year of Joash (2 Kings 14:1-2, 21)

–       Joash:  3109 + 1 = 3110

–       Started reign at 25 years old:  3110 – 25 = 3085

–       Reigned 29 years / Azariah becomes king:  3110 + 29 = 3139

Azariah:  Began reign in 27th year of Jeroboam II (2 Kings 14:21; 15:1-2, 7)

–       Jeroboam II:  3125 + 26 = 3151

–       Started reign at 16 years old:  3139 – 16 = 3123

–       Reigned 52 years / Jotham becomes king:  3151 + 52 = 3203

–        

Jotham:  Began to reign in 2nd year of Pekah (2 Kings 15:32-33, 38)

–       Pekah:  3202 + 1 = 3203

–       Started reign at 25 years old:  3203 – 25 = 3178

–       Reigned 16 years / Ahaz becomes king:  3203 + 16 = 3219

 

Ahaz:  Began to reign in 17th year of Pekah (2 Kings 16:1-2, 20)

–       Pekah:  3202 + 16 = 3218/3219

–       See footnote *9b

–       Started reign at 20 years old:  3219 – 20 = 3199

–       Reigned 16 years / Hezekiah becomes king:  3219 + 16 = 3235

 

Hezekiah:  Began to reign in 3rd year Hoshea (2 Kings 18:1-2; 20:21)

–       Hoshea:  3230 + 2 = 3232

–       Started reign at 25 years old:  3232 – 25 = 3207

–       Reigned 29 years / Manasseh becomes king:  3232 + 29 = 3261

–       God grants Hezekiah 15 more years of life (2 Kings 20:6):  3261 – 15 = 3246

–       See foot note ‘Assyria Took Fenced Cities of Judah in 14th Year of Hezekiah’.

 

Manasseh:  Began reign after Hezekiah, 3261 (2 Kings 20:21; 21:1, 18)

–       Started reign when 12 years old:  3261 – 12 = 3249

–       Reigned 55 years / Amon becomes king:  3261 + 55 = 3316

 

Amon:  Began reign after Manasseh, 3316 (2 Kings 21:19, 26)

–       Started reign when 22 years old:  3316 – 22 = 3294

–       Reigned 2 years / Josiah becomes king:  3316 + 2 = 3318

 

Josiah:  Began reign after Amon, 3318 (2 Kings 21:26; 22:1; 23:30; 22:3; 23:21-23)

–       Started reign when 8 years old:  3318 – 8 = 3310

–       Reigned 31 years / Jehoahaz II becomes king:  3318 + 31 = 3349

–       During 18th year of reign calls for repairs to the House of The Lord:  3318 + 17 = 3335

–       During 18th year of reign the Passover was held for the first time since the Judges:  3335

 

Jehoahaz II:  Began reign after Josiah, 3349 (2 Kings 23:30-31, 33-36)

–       Started reign when 23 years old:  3349 – 23 = 3326

–       Reigned 3 months / Jehoiakim becomes king:  3349

 

Jehoiakim:  Began to reign after Jehoahaz, 3349 (2 Kings 23:33-36; 24:1, 6)

–       Started reign when 25 years old:  3349 – 25 = 3324

–       Reigned 11 years / Jehoiachin becomes king:  3349 + 11 = 3360

–       Note:  Jehoiakim was the brother of Jehoahaz and son of Josiah.  Pharaoh removed Jehoahaz and placed Jehoiakim in the throne, whose real name was Eliakim before it was change by Pharaoh.

 

Jehoiachin:  Began reign after Jehoiakim, 3360 (2 Kings 24:8-12, 17; 25:27)

–       Started reign when 18 years old:  3360 – 18 = 3342

–       Reigned for 3 months / Zedekiah becomes king:  3360

–       Surrenders to King of Babylon; taken captive 37 years:  3360 + 37 = 3497

 

Zedekiah:  Began reign after Jehoiachin, 3360 (2 Kings 24:17-18)

–       Started reign when 21 years old:  3360 – 21 = 3339

–       Reigned 11 years / King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon  takes Judah:  3360 + 11  = 3371

–       Note: Zedekiah was Jehoiachin’s uncle.   Zedekiah’s original name was Mattaniah, changed by the King of Babylon.

 

Babylon (King Nebuchadnezzar) Takes Judah, 3371 (2 Kings 25:1-3, 8, 12-26)

–       9th year of Zedekiah (10th month, 10th day):  Jerusalem surrounded:  3360 + 9 = 3369

–     17th year of Nebuchadnezzar

–       11th year of Zedekiah (4th month, 9th day):  Famine prevails:  3360 + 11 = 3371

–       11th year of Zedekiah (5th month, 7th day):  Judah taken:  3360 + 11 = 3371

–     19th year of Nebuchadnezzar

–     King Nebuchadnezzar 1st year of reign:  3371 – 19 = 3352

–     Nebuchadnezzar puts Gediliah in charge (by 7th month killed); people flee to Egypt. (3371/3372)

 

Nadab:  Began reign in 2nd year of Asa (1 Kings 15:25, 28)

–       Asa: 2989 + 1 = 2990

–       Reigned 2 years:  2990 + 2 = 2992

–       Nadab is killed by Baasha in 3rd year of reign (Baasha becomes king):  2990 + 2 = 2992

–       (basis for only adding 2 years for ‘in the 3rd year of reign …ect)

 

Baasha:  Began reign in 3rd year of Asa (1 Kings 15:33)

–       Asa: 2989 + 2 = 2991/2992

–       See footnote *9b

–       Reigned 24 years / Elah becomes king:  2992 + 24 = 3016

–       More information is given to support Elah starting his reign in 3014.  See following notes:

 

Elah:  Began reign in 26th year of Asa (1 Kings 16:8, 10)

–       Asa: 2989 + 25 = 3014

–       Reigned for 2 years

–       Note:  Elah must have begun reign in very early 3014 and ended reign in very late 3015.

–       Elah was killed by Zimri in the 27th year of Asa (Zimri becomes king):  2989 + 26 = 3015

–       See footnote *9b

 

Zimri:  Began reign in 27th year of Asa (1 Kings 16:15)

–       Asa: 2989 + 26 = 3015

–       Reigned 7 days.

Omni & Tibni:  Both began reigned in 3015 after Zimri. (1 Kings 16:21)

 

Omni:  Began sole kingship in 31st year of Asa after he killed Tibni. (1 Kings 16:22-23, 28)

–       Asa: 2989 + 30 = 3019

–       Reigned 12 years / Ahab becomes king:  3019 + 12 =  3031

 

Ahab:  Began reign in 38th year of Asa (1 Kings 16:29; 22:40)

–       Asa: 2989 + 37 = 3026

–       Reigned 22 years / Ahaziah becomes king: 3026 + 22 = 3048

 

Ahaziah 1:  Began reign in 17th year of Jehoshephat (1 Kings 22:51; 2 Kings 1:17)

–       Jehoshephat:  3030 + 16 = 3046

–       Reigned 2 years / Joram becomes king:  3046 + 2 = 3048

 

Joram:  Began reign in 2nd year of Jehoram (2 Kings 1:17; 2 Kings 3:1)

–       Jehoram: 3052 + 1 (in 2nd year) = 3053

–       Began to reign in 18th year of Jehoshephat

–       Jehoshephat:  3030 + 17 = 3047/3048

–       See footnote *9b

–       Reigned 12 years / Jehu becomes king:  3053 + 12 = 3065

 

Jehu:  Began reign after anointed to be king and killing Joram and Ahaziah 2:  3064/3065 (2 Kings 9; 10:35-36)

–       Reigned 28 years / Jehoahaz becomes king:  3064 + 28 = 3092

–       Note: More information suggests Jehu starting in 3064. (See Ahaziah 2, Athaliah and Jehoash)

–       See footnote *9b

 

Jehoahaz:  Began reign in 23rd of Jehoash (2 Kings 13:1, 9)

–       Jehoash:  3070 + 22 = 3092

–       Reigned 17 years / Joash becomes king:  3092 + 17 = 3109

 

Joash:  Began reign in 37th of Jehoash (2 Kings 13:10, 13)

–       Jehoash:  3070 + 36 = 3106

–       Reigned 16 years / Jeroboam II becomes king:  3109 + 16 = 3125

 

Jeroboam II:  Began reign in 15th year of Amaziah (2 Kings 14:23, 29)

–       Amaziah:  3110 + 14 = 3124/3125

–       See footnote *9b

–       Reigned 41 years / Zachariah becomes king:  3125 + 41 = 3166

 

Zachariah:  Began to reign in 38th year of Azariah (2 Kings 15:8, 10)

–       Azariah:  3151 + 37 = 3188

–       Reigned 6 months / Shallum becomes king: 3188

–       See footnote *9b

–       The 20 year gap between the 2 years given for Zachariah is by far the largest with the kings.  We simply don’t have enough information to explain this.  We also have no reason to not believe it.

 

Shallum:  Began reign in 39th year of Azariah (2 Kings 15:13, 14)

–       Azariah:  3151 + 38 = 3189/3188

–       See footnote *9b

–       Reigned 1 month / Menahem becomes king: 3189

 

Menahem:  Began to reign in 39th year of Azariah (2 Kings 15:17, 22)

–       Azariah:  3151 + 38 = 3189

–       Reigned 10 years / Pekahiah becomes king:  3189 + 10 = 3199

 

Pekahiah:  Began to reign in 50th year of Azariah (2 Kings 15:23, 25)

–       Azariah: 3151 + 49 = 3199/3200

–       See footnote *9b

–       Reigned 2 years / Pekah become king:  3200 + 2 = 3202

 

Pekah:  Began to reign 52nd year of Azariah (2 Kings 15:27-30)

–       Azariah:  3151 + 51 = 3202

–       Reigned 20 years / Hoshea becomes king:  3202 + 20 = 3222

–       Durring Pekah’s reign Assyria carried away 8 cities of Israel.  (3202-3222)

Hoshea:  Began reign in 20th year of Jotham (2 Kings 15:30)

–       Jotham:  3203 + 19 = 3222

–       Began reign in 12th year  of Ahaz (2 Kings 17:1, 6)

–       Ahaz:  3219 + 11 = 3230

–       Reigned 9 years / In 9th year Assyria takes Samaria (Israel):  3230 + 8 = 3238

 

Assyria Takes Samaria (Israel):  (2 Kings 18:9-10)

–       Siege on Samaria began in 4th year of Hezekiah:  3232 + 3 = 3235

–       Siege on Samaria began in 7th year of Hoshea:  3230 + 6 = 3236

–       Samaria Taken in 6th year of Hezekiah:  3232 + 5 = 3237

–       Samaria Taken in 9th year of Hoshea:  3230 + 8 = 3238

–       The year of 3238 is being chosen for this date because 2 Kings 17:6 already established it.  Likewise, the year of 3236 for the siege beginning on Samaria is chosen.  (See footnote *9b)

–       Verse 10 says the siege lasted 3 years but the gap appears to be only 2 years.  The siege must have begun very early 3236 and ended very late 3238.

 

As stated in other footnotes, the main approach for continuing the progression of time when two dates are given for a king is to use the later date.  When we use the later date for Hezekiah and Hoshea we end up with a 2 year gap between their regnal years.  One solution to this is to recognize other factors that need to be considered when constructing a chronology.  Factors such as interregna.  Interregna is when the succession of reigns is interrupted and no king sits on the throne.  These are time gaps when no king reigns.  This gap of two years could have happened between the end of the reign of Jotham and the beginning of Hezekiah.   So far this is the only regnal date with both kings being in the middle of their reign. Up to this point all other regnal dates consisted of one king at the beginning of his reign.

It’s worth noting here the gap of 2 years we see on the timeline between Baasha and Elah.   It would appear that if we chose to go with Elah beginning his reign in 3016 (instead of 3014) that it would eventually push Hoshea’s 7th year up 2 years to match Hezekiah’s 4th in 3238.  However, when reevaluating the conclusion over Elah the decision stands with his reign beginning in 3014.  Let me explain:  Zimri killed Elah to take the throne in the 27th year of Asa in 3015.   This means Elah was killed one year before his reign started if he began in 3016.   The easy fix to this problem would be to call on footnote *9b as we’ve done so many time with 1 year issues.  However, this is not that easy.   King Asa is a major figure in identifying northern kingdom dates.   When we consider the rest of the northern kingdom kings that hinge on Asa and then push Elah 2 years forward, it creates many more inconsistencies down the line of things and doesn’t result in eliminating the 2 year gap of Hoshea and Hezekiah.

The other place where we can resolve the 2 year gap is found in which of the 2 years for Hezekiah are we going to based his 4th year of reign off of.   One difficulty of having 2 years for a king is not knowing what year is being referred to.   As stated earlier, the main approach for continuing the progression of time when two dates are given for a king is to use the later date.   In this situation with Hezekiah we are choosing to go with the earlier date to resolve the 2 year gap while maintaining the later date for Hoshea.    As a result we must use the same conclusion for when Assyria took the fenced cities of Judah.

Assyria Took Fenced Cities of Judah in 14th of Hezekiah:  (2 Kings 18:13)

–       Hezekiah:  3232 + 13 = 3245

–       Assyria took the cities of Judah at this time as a result of Hezekiah pride (2 Chron 32:24-16).   Hezekiah would also be struck with disease because of his pride.  It would appear that this disease would last around a year before Hezekiah would repent to God.  God would respond to his repentance and extend Hezekiah’s life 15 years.